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評論:擁抱新商業文明時代

:2019/08/26


銳評:擁抱新商業文明時代

8月19日,181位領軍企業的CEO簽署發布《關于企業宗旨的聲明》。這是一個裡程碑式的事件,标志着一個對人類環境負責、對所有利益相關方負責的新商業文明時代的開啟。以1765年哈格裡夫斯發明“珍妮紡紗機”為起點,人類社會經曆了四次工業革命。支撐250多年高速發展的,主要是以自由主義為倫理基礎的資本主義體系。但是,衆所周知,伴随着生産力的提升和物質世界的巨大繁榮,今天的人類社會并沒有成為和諧樂園,全球變暖、移民危機、恐怖主義等全球挑戰日漸加深。所有這些挑戰的背後最根本的原因,就是貧富差距的日益擴大,而導緻貧富差距鴻溝日漸加寬的,正是“為股東謀取最大利益”的原教旨資本主義的商業運行邏輯和金融投資體系,以及為這樣的商業邏輯和投資體系服務的公共管理體系。大約100年前,以卡耐基的《财富的福音》出版為代表,現代慈善作為對先進高效的資本主義缺陷重要彌補開始起步。其基礎邏輯是,資本主義體系是正當、優秀的,同時這個體系必然會讓弱者和失敗者掉隊,而公益慈善可以很好地彌補政府調節和市場競争的不足。經過百餘年實踐,2015年,美國福特基金會總裁呂德倫先生在其發表的公開信中表明,公益慈善所依賴的經濟體系需要進行深刻的變革,現代慈善理論需要新的探索。自20世紀70年代起,一些慈善家和慈善組織開始對傳統投資和傳統慈善進行反思。從“不做惡的投資”,到“環境、社會、治理三重底線投資”,到“主動為善的投資”,再到“既能解決社會問題又可實現商業閉環的影響力投資”,商業向善、投資向善逐步成為新時代的趨勢。由比爾·蓋茨、瑞·達利歐、牛根生等慈善家發起的國際公益學院,正是迎合市場失靈和慈善失靈的雙重需求應運而生的。學院董事會主席馬蔚華從銀行家轉身成為影響力投資的推動者和實踐者,通過其全國政協委員議案和每年逾50場的公開演講,呼籲更多企業家把握商業向善趨勢。學院王振耀院長創立的“善經濟理論”深刻闡釋了新商業文明的底層邏輯,明确指出在全球人均GDP超過10000美元的善經濟時代,社會價值開始引領經濟價值,是全球範圍内的最大趨勢。國際公益學院的旗艦項目“GPL全球善财領袖計劃”,其課程邏輯和主體内容就是善财同行的新商業文明和慈善新前沿。(點擊鍊接,加入GPL)鑒于中國作為社會主義國家秉持的“共同富裕”“實現人的全面發展”價值導向,以及中國共産黨第十九次代表大會明确的“創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享”發展理念和“共建共治共享”社會治理格局,我們有理由相信,在追求“惠及所有利益相關方”的新商業文明時代,中國企業家、慈善家更有條件成為新時代的引領者。結合中國的特點,中國的善财領袖可以在融合多元主體開展影響力投資或影響力債券、推動企業升級企業社會責任體系、鼓勵改造或創辦各類社會企業、開展家族戰略慈善、實踐公益創投或使命相關投資等方面大膽探索,為全球新商業、新慈善提供重要經驗。

——傅昌波

國際公益學院助理院長

北京師範大學教授、博士生導師


關于企業宗旨的聲明

美國人應該生活在這樣的經濟環境下,即每個人通過努力工作和創造力能獲得成功,并過上有意義和有尊嚴的生活。我們認為,自由市場體系是創造良好就業機會、強大而可持續的經濟、創新精神、健康的環境和所有人共享經濟機會的最佳體系。企業通過創造就業機會,促進創新和提供必需商品和服務,在經濟中發揮着至關重要的作用。企業制造和銷售商品; 制造設備和車輛; 支持國防; 種植和生産食物; 提供醫療保健; 産生并提供能量; 并提供支持經濟增長的金融,通訊和其他服務。雖然我們每個公司都有自己的企業宗旨,但我們對所有利益相關方都有着共同的承諾。我們承諾:

為我們的客戶提供價值。我們将進一步推動美國公司在滿足或超越客戶期望方面的傳統。

投資我們的員工。首先是公平地補償他們并提供重要的好處。包括通過培訓和教育為他們提供支持,幫助他們為快速變化的世界開發新技能。我們促進多樣性和包容,尊嚴和尊重。

與供應商公平合理地進行交易。我們緻力于成為其他大小公司的良好合作夥伴,幫助我們完成任務。

支持我們工作的社區。我們尊重社區中的人,通過我們業務的可持續實踐來保護環境。

為股東創造長期價值,為股東提供資金,使公司能夠進行投資,發展和創新。我們緻力于透明和有效參與股東。

每個利益相關者都至關重要。我們緻力于為所有公司,社區和國家的未來成功地創造價值。



自1978年以來,商業圓桌會議定期發布“公司治理的原則”。自1997年以來發布的每份文件都遵循股東至上的原則 —— 公司主要是為股東服務。随着今天的公告發布,新聲明取代之前的聲明,表明了企業責任的現代标準。

“美國夢充滿希望,但也處在崩潰邊緣。大企業正在為他們的工人和社區投資,因為他們知道這是長期成功的唯一途徑。這些現代化的原則反映了商界堅定不移的承諾,即繼續推動為所有美國人服務的經濟。”

——傑米•戴蒙(Jamie Dimon)

摩根大通公司董事長兼首席執行官、商業圓桌會議主席

“這一新聲明更好地反映了企業今天能夠和應該運作的模式,當這些CEO們真正緻力于滿足所有利益相關者的需求時,便是肯定了企業在改善社會方面可以發揮重要作用。”

——亞曆克斯(Alex Gorsky)

強生公司董事會主席兼首席執行官、商業圓桌公司治理委員會主席

“我歡迎商業圓桌會議的代表們關于公司宗旨的這一深思熟慮的聲明。通過更廣泛,更完整的企業目标觀,董事會可以專注于創造長期價值,更好地服務于每個人 —— 投資者、員工、社區、供應商和客戶。”

——比爾(Bill McNabb)

美國先鋒集團(Vanguard)前首席執行官

“CEO們緻力于為股東創造利潤和價值回報,但是更好的公司會做得更多。他們把客戶放在第一位,并投資于他們的員工和社區。最終證明,這是建立長期價值的最有希望的方式。”

——特裡西亞(Tricia Griffith)

美國先進公司(Progressive Corporation)總裁兼首席執行官

“這是一個巨大的新聞,因為21世紀的企業專注于為所有利益相關者創造長期價值并應對我們所面臨的挑戰,這将導緻企業和社會共同繁榮和可持續發展,這比以往任何時候都更加重要。”

——呂德倫(Darren Walker)

福特基金會主席


原題:Corporation to Promote 'An Economy That Serves All Americans'

來源:Business Roundtable

日期:2019年8月19日

Business Roundtable today announced the release of a new Statement on the Purpose of a Corporation signed by 181 CEOs who commit to lead their companies for the benefit of all stakeholders – customers, employees, suppliers, communities and shareholders.

Since 1978, Business Roundtable has periodically issued Principles of Corporate Governance. Each version of the document issued since 1997 has endorsed principles of shareholder primacy – that corporations exist principally to serve shareholders. With today’s announcement, the new Statement supersedes previous statements and outlines a modern standard for corporate responsibility.

“The American dream is alive, but fraying,” said Jamie Dimon, Chairman and CEO of JPMorgan Chase & Co. and Chairman of Business Roundtable. “Major employers are investing in their workers and communities because they know it is the only way to be successful over the long term. These modernized principles reflect the business community’s unwavering commitment to continue to push for an economy that serves all Americans.”

“This new statement better reflects the way corporations can and should operate today,” added Alex Gorsky, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Johnson & Johnson and Chair of the Business Roundtable Corporate Governance Committee. “It affirms the essential role corporations can play in improving our society when CEOs are truly committed to meeting the needs of all stakeholders.”

Industry leaders also lent their support for the updated Business Roundtable Statement, citing the positive impact this commitment will have on long-term value creation:

“I welcome this thoughtful statement by Business Roundtable CEOs on the Purpose of a Corporation. By taking a broader, more complete view of corporate purpose, boards can focus on creating long-term value, better serving everyone – investors, employees, communities, suppliers and customers,” said Bill McNabb, former CEO of Vanguard.

“CEOs work to generate profits and return value to shareholders, but the best-run companies do more. They put the customer first and invest in their employees and communities. In the end, it’s the most promising way to build long-term value,” said Tricia Griffith, President and CEO of Progressive Corporation.

“This is tremendous news because it is more critical than ever that businesses in the 21st century are focused on generating long-term value for all stakeholders and addressing the challenges we face, which will result in shared prosperity and sustainability for both business and society,” said Darren Walker, President of the Ford Foundation.

The Business Roundtable Statement on the Purpose of a Corporation is below and the full list of signatories is available here.

Statement on the Purpose of a Corporation

Americans deserve an economy that allows each person to succeed through hard work and creativity and to lead a life of meaning and dignity. We believe the free-market system is the best means of generating good jobs, a strong and sustainable economy, innovation, a healthy environment and economic opportunity for all.

Businesses play a vital role in the economy by creating jobs, fostering innovation and providing essential goods and services. Businesses make and sell consumer products; manufacture equipment and vehicles; support the national defense; grow and produce food; provide health care; generate and deliver energy; and offer financial, communications and other services that underpin economic growth.

While each of our individual companies serves its own corporate purpose, we share a fundamental commitment to all of our stakeholders. We commit to:

Delivering value to our customers. We will further the tradition of American companies leading the way in meeting or exceeding customer expectations.

Investing in our employees. This starts with compensating them fairly and providing important benefits. It also includes supporting them through training and education that help develop new skills for a rapidly changing world. We foster diversity and inclusion, dignity and respect.

Dealing fairly and ethically with our suppliers. We are dedicated to serving as good partners to the other companies, large and small, that help us meet our missions.

Supporting the communities in which we work. We respect the people in our communities and protect the environment by embracing sustainable practices across our businesses.

Generating long-term value for shareholders, who provide the capital that allows companies to invest, grow and innovate. We are committed to transparency and effective engagement with shareholders.

Each of our stakeholders is essential. We commit to deliver value to all of them, for the future success of our companies, our communities and our country.




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